One of the truly unique aspects of âLes Misâ is the character of Javert, the principal antagonist. One of the most poignant points of the antagonism of Javert is how it clarifies the redemption of the convict Jean Valjean. Jean Valjean poses as M. Madeleine in this pure and natural life but soon comes across a dilemma. He combines charitable work and preaching, which endears him to the impoverished people of his district. The Bishop is described by Quale as âHugoâs hero as well as saint; and we can not deny him beauty such as those enskied and sainted wear. The metaphor of a king being a âparasiteâ expresses the idea of the upper class feeding off the proletariat, which expresses a key Marxist idea of the bourgeoisie exploiting the proletariats beneath them. This passing meditation on the importance of love is one of the most famous quotes from the novel. Had it not rained in the night of 17-18 June 1815, the future of Europe would have been different. Hugo revels in language. Enjolras realises that the reason their revolt will not succeed is because they no longer have the mass support of the proletariat behind their revolt. Overall, Rastignac is an intelligent and likeable young man. One day Fauchelevent, an old man, falls under his cart and is unable to get out. Now, ... and it forms the lowest stage of official style. Set in the Parisian underworld and plotted like a detective story, the work follows the fortunes of the convict Jean Valjean, a victim of society As a Realist writer, de Balzac has no trouble showing Rastignacâs willingness to sacrifice other people to achieve his own goals. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â, To fully understand the concept of Javert as antagonist, one must go to the very heart of âLes Miserablesâ. Those who try to rise above their station generally cause and incur misery even if they succeed, which many do notâin fact, some of them end up worse off than before. The disparity between the image he portrays and his reality causes great conflict within him and leads him to reassess his choices. Style is the reflection of the man and it is therefore not surprising that a writer of Hugo's enormous vitality should abandon classical restraint. The direct answer is quite simple: he is in direct opposition to Jean Valjean, the protagonist. Although she does end up in a good financial situation later in life, Rosamond never becomes an attractive or positive character and is not ethically redeemed the way her brother Fred is. His sister, who is miserable, has done the opposite. Les Misérables is the archetypal representation of eternal human emotions such as love, hate, and abnegation. After Myriel pardons Valjean by saying that the stolen silver was a gift, Valjean is forced to reexamine himself. Poor harvests and harsh winters in the years before the June Rebellion had led to people being restless. Valjean, representing the common man and Romantic ideals, does not see the necessity in organized religion, instead, he relies on his own connection with God. However, Parker precisely pinpoints the dominating and most recurring traits in Romanticism: âThe essential elements of the romantic spirit are curiosity and the love of beautyâ (Parker 308). Having just re-read Victor Hugo’s magisterial Les Miserables this absence becomes even more evident, not to mention stark. Victor Hugoâs Les MisÃ¨rables demonstrates the power of love, whether it be spiritual, parental, or romantic. It can redeem even the most evil manâs soul, form a bond between a broken man and a neglected child, and fight off all of the odds to bring two people together. They embraced post-French Revolution and Napoleonic themes relating to equality, overthrowing the monarchymonarchy overthrow, and wanting a will to return to the status quo. However, this deep love doesnât stop there. This quotation is also from the chapter where Hugo meditates on the significance of Waterloo. Les Miserables study guide contains a biography of Victor Hugo, literature essays, ... it does not shy away from portraying the degradation of human suffering, but it also highlights the ways that such suffering can provide the chance to achieve glory. By the 19th century, although Napoleon had been defeated and Franceâs imperial ambitions had been temporarily curtailed, decades of social engineering on a national level had produced an environment wherein people couldâfor the first time in human historyâexpect to be promoted to positions of temporal authority based solely on their merit. He is a genuine hero in every sense of the word. Finally, through imagination, great use of revolutionary ideas and expression of ideas, such as spirituality, is depicted through characters such as Jean Valjean on his choice of personal revelation for guidance. Javert, a conservative police inspector, embodies the ideas of reactionaries. In his introduction to Les Miserables, Laurence Porter states âpoverty dehumanises the poor [â¦] leading to [â¦] crimes that subject the underclass to a purely punitive prison system that offers no hope of rehabilitation.â Valjean is forced to steal because of poverty, (poverty being one of the three main issues Hugo outlines in his preface), and he is sent to prison for a minor crime and is dehumanised because of it. The musketeer characters support their ideals of honor and service to a just and competent monarchy, in an increasingly ambiguous and dishonorable world. Indeed, Ladislawâs attraction to Dorothea is something he himself regards as inappropriate. In consequence, societal conflict is always present. She believes that Tertius Lydgate, whose titled relatives disapprove of his choice of a medical profession, will help him financially. âSo long as the three problems of the age â the degradation of man by poverty, the ruin of women by starvation, and the dwarfing of childhood by physical and spiritual night.â Hugo, much like Marx, wanted to eradicate these societal issues, and stated âso long as ignorance and misery remain on earth, books like this cannot be useless.â Hugo uses the novel to critique the societal structures of Parisian society and their rigidity, and in doing so presents some key Marxist ideas. By emphasizing the importance of nature, Hugo also emphasizes the importance of inspiration that we find through nature. He and his wife end up experiencing the predictable results of their financial folly. To persuade..., to inform...to entertain... Hugo's purpose for writing, Les Miserables, was to inform.... to expose social injustice and the effects of ignorance and poverty. This quote describes Bishop Myriel's work of ministering to the poor. The character of Fantine, for example, is forced into prostitution in order to make money to support herself and her daughter, Cosette. By definition, an antagonist opposes and/or fights against the hero of the story. One point to remember is that Dumas wrote in the Romantic tradition and not the Realist tradition, so the lack of opposition to Porthosâs financial and social advancement was not plausible or realistic. Yet another type of love to impact the story is romantic, and the main relationship containing this love is between Marius and Cosette. Enjolras, the leader of the Friends of ABC, embodies the ideas of nationalism. Worse yet, he has become a devil by becoming part of the society he denounced years before. It is now important to draw a distinction between social climbing and conspicuous overconsumption. Schwartz describes his conquest, as âMarius Pontemercy courts young Cosette from afar, and wins her affections with a love letter…Marius crafted his persona with words, representing and embodying himself in a letter…in the hopes that she would see the depth and sincerity of his loveâ (Schwartz). Web.Hugo, Victor. At this point, the transition from a devil in heaven to an angel in hell seems very obvious. Women, who generally assumed the rank and social class of their husbands upon marriage, had an opportunity to move up in class by marrying a wealthier man from a more prestigious family. But human suffering is still difficult to quantify. Overall, George Sand is more charitable to her social-climbing characters than earlier English Realist authors were. This process is seen in characters such as the Bishop and Jean Valjean, the latter especially stresses the ideas of own discovery at the end of the novel, when he is on his deathbed. Boys can cry at funerals, during chick flicks or when their girlfriend breaks up with them. The story of how the convict Jean-Valjean struggled to escape his past and reaffirm his humanity, in a world brutalized by poverty and ignorance, became the gospel of the poor and the oppressed. Social unrest in this time resulted in many to speak out against the government, and Gavroche shouted for equality in parades in Paris and denounced the corrupt current monarch. Les Miserables essays are academic essays for citation. He is very generous to the poor, has a good conscience, and seems always to be calm. Literature is present during the era of the ancient world. Javert on the other hand, when presented with a righteousness which was greater than his own legalistic ideals of right and wrong, experienced a shattering of his world and was driven to suicide. Carvings and paintings on walls inside caves of stone give evidence about the lives of prehistoric people. Individualism becomes a broad topic in Les Miserables with the focus encompassing the individual’s struggle against a greater force, whether it be morality or political conflicts. Regardless of Hugo’s own spiritual state, it is clear from the film “Les Miserables” that Christianity is largely beneficial. Hugo addresses a great many topics in his novel, with focus on a few core values of romanticism: nature, individualism, and imagination, by use of character development and conflict. He fought against oppression until his death with the ideals of nationalism still strong within his heart. Over the course of history, humanity has seen what love can do time and time again, and in no other novel is this as apparent as in Victor Hugoâs Les MisÃ¨rables. He chooses to reveal his identity even when it means he will lose what he loves. This humanity is shown especially in the character development of Jean Valjean. Romanticism is characterized in a plethora of ways, and ranges from foundations of artwork, to literature, to music, to philosophy- anything requiring creation. In this effort, he is not successful. He realizes that he must model his life on Bishop Myriel's generous life. This, in a society where men control most of the money and assets, guarantees a very unhappy and uncomfortable life. Character-wise, he is well developed in a way most of the English social climbing characters are not. Web.Cooke, A. Religion is not specifically addressed as a single institution or religion, instead it is explored through nature and the individual, as previous sections stress. Les Miserables, then, is so much more than just a well told story. The Sewanee Review 10.2 (1902): 129â133. His fellow soldiers, even the aristocratic Athos, support not only his pursuit of wealth but his desire for rank. Nationalists in Italy led by Mazzini also faced similar social crises, and opposition against repression as well as the will for self government led to revolution. Middlemarch was written later in the 19th century, after the mercantile class had become well established as possessing enough wealth to occasionally compete financially with independently wealthy families. However, he neglects to critique the role of religion within these social structures, disagreeing with Marx’s point of “religion is the opium of the people”, Hugo being a religious man himself, although he critiques the power of religion in The Hunchback of Notre Dame through his presentation of Frollo. 126 quotes have been tagged as les-miserables: ... artificially creates a hell on earth, and complicates with human fatality a destiny that is divine; so long as the three ... tags: god, gratitude, joy, les-miserables, suffering, victor-hugo. There is scarcely anything else in the world but that: to love one another…I die happyâ¦â (Hugo 519). Les Miserables book. With individualism, Hugo shows the humanity and power of the common man against oppressive forces, through the Byronic-type hero of Jean Valjean. This then leaves the question: how can Javert be an antagonist? This concept, however, is not the case in âLes Miserablesâ. Victor Hugo includes a substantial interlude (an entire chapter) on the events and significance of Waterloo, of which this quotation is a part. It also offers an example of Hugo's use of the royal "we" to introduce his own opinions in the narrative. These policies, such as the Carlsbad decrees of 1819 which impose censorship and repression in universities, appealed to the very traditional Javert. Often makes no attempt to resolve the misery it depicts. The themes encapsulated in Hugo’s 1862 magnum opus –redemption, love, justice, crime and punishment, morality, human solidarity — unfold during the course of a story that begins at the end of Napoleon’s climactic ‘100 days’. Despite dedicating nearly all his money and time, Bishop Myriel does not have enough resources to completely eradicate poverty; in some cases, the only thing he can offer is a better way to view grief, but this is still useful to the impoverished people of rural France. He does not seek to harm others, except through his participation in the escapades with Athos, Aramis, and dâArtagnan. This defect of character is what drives Frederick away from her: the newcomer Jane despises happens to be Frederickâs beloved sister. In Les MisÃ©rables, the Romantic writer Victor Hugo spends several chapters chronicling the various rises and falls of Jean Valjean. In Les Misérables,Hugo asserts thatlove and compassion are the most important gifts one person cangive another and that always displaying these qualities should bethe most important goal in life. HonorÃ© de Balzac, in the body of novels sometimes described as his âhuman comedyâ, writes about EugÃ¨ne de Rastignac repeatedly but introduces him for the first time in PÃ¨re Goriot. Becky Sharp is not entirely without principles or positive traits. Â Â Â Â Â Â, Even with these arguments, the concept of Javert being a âvillainâ could be confusing to some readers. Yet in Dumasâs book, nobody suggests that Porthosâs courtship and marriage of a wealthy widow is in any way inappropriate despite their vast age difference and a sizable difference in class between an enlisted musketeer (not even an officer) and the wife of a well educated lawyer. The reader cannot help but empathize with him, and the human beings who persecute or mistreat him are presented as malicious, ignorant, or irrational. The two glimpse each other during their daily walks in the park, and those mere glances are enough to make them fall deeply in love. Like her brother Fred, Rosamund Vincy has been raised at a very affluent standard of living. Get tips and ideas in OUTLINE. Within his novel Ninety-Three, the narrative focuses on the Royalist counter-revolts during the French revolution, but the Hugo questions the Royalist need for a class hierarchy the character of Gauvainâs questioning of a Royalistâs belief. He sides with these students immediately by stating, âthey were a coterie, if coteries created heroesâ, glorifying them with the modifier âheroesâ and presenting their desire for revolution positively, thus supporting the need for change. Marius, for example, embodies Romantic ideals of imagination through his love letters to Cossette — the power of words! Anne Bronte depicts alcoholism in brutal and disgusting detail, George Sand delves into the financial problems created by the bad decision making of some of the characters in her books, and William Makepeace Thackeray freely mocks the pretensions of English genteel society. His good deeds continue as the situation in Paris becomes even more like hell. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Given a simple description of Javert and his actions, one might not immediately deduce that he is in fact an antagonist. Elsewhere in the novel, Hugo confronts ideas of revolution through the views of those of the ABC Society, whose aims are ârepublicâ. Indeed, to a modern audience Becky is a sympathetic character, yet the narratorâs assertion that people frequently deserve their own bad treatment may have struck a nerve with a contemporary audience. He is not stupidly short-sighted, lazy, or selfish like the Vincy siblings, and unlike Rosamund he is capable of changing his strategy. One example is when he and Cosette live at a nunnery to escape the policeman Javert; Cosette is taught by the sisters and Valjean works as a gardener. Where there are advocates of a certain belief, there are most certainly denouncers of that same belief. Being an elderly man, Javert saw the horrors of the French Revolution and evidently despised the turmoil and anarchy occurring everywhere. Valjean begins as a convicted thief and escapee, and at first reoffends by stealing from a child and from a priest. Jean Valjean, as protagonist, is essentially the embodiment of this message, a living testimony of the power of grace. Through this, Hugo expresses his agreement with the right to rebel, which agrees with Marxâs idea of the necessary overthrow of the old system for a communist society. This exaggeration of fortune can also be attributed to the Romantic perspective. 1848. As the Bishop tells Jean Valjean, âMy brother; you belong no longer to evil, but to good. Her joy inspires even greater joy in Valjean; Cosette is happy that she has inspires such happiness in him. He not only attends Goriotâs funeral but helps to pay for it along with a student even more impoverished than Rastignac. Large-scale social mobility did not become possible until the Industrial Revolution, when the technological innovations developed in the last half of the 18th Century led to the creation of vast wealth from mercantile and manufacturing enterprises. Combeferre speaks these words towards the end of the battle of the barricade. She is allowed to see him for one hour everyday, and she comes running to see him in delight. Those questions asked and decided, he condemned society and sentenced it” (21). The world that Jean Valjean emerges into is a far cry from the comfortable existence as M. Madeleine. A convict may leave the galleys but not his condemnation.â Once again displaying that a convict is no longer seen as a person after leaving prison, adding to the idea of dehumanisation through the class system. Alexandre Dumas allows his Musketeers to make political enemies and allies, working sometimes for and sometimes against corrupt politicians, statesmen, and would-be rulers. These political critiques are most powerfully manifested in Jean Valjeanâs struggle with Javert, and a focus on the unfairness between classes, such as the Thenardiers and Fantine. Les Miserables: Theme of Suffering By Alexis DelGatto, Period 2 March 12, 2014 Works Cited "Anne Hathaway Anne Hathaway as Fantine in Les Miserables." A few drops of water, more or less, were what decided Napoleon's fate. The characters within Les Miserables reflect the society, and its challenges, in the 1800s in France. Hugo also portrays the degradation of children in society through the unnamed sons of the Thenardiers, who are sold, and eventually end up homeless on the streets of Paris. In this respect he has indeed moved up in the world. When she later marries the assetless but somewhat liberal Ladislaw, sacrificing her husbandâs entire inheritance and living only on her own assets inherited from her mother, her decision is not presented as good or intelligent. 1844. A Hero: Jean Valjean. Did any voice whisper to him that he was at a turning-point in his life, that henceforth there could be no middle way for him, that he must become either the best of men or the worst, rise even higher than the bishop himself or sink lower than the felon, reach supreme heights of goodness or become a monster of depravity? Through this exploration, Grossman describes the product as, âMany of the ethical and political overtones of his work also serve the distinctly aesthetic end of defining his mature concept of romanticism and the romantic novelâ (Grossman 9). The Bishop finds this inspiration in nature, as he takes walks in his garden before bed each night. The hardship endured by his family from whom he continues to wheedle money so as to outfit himself for a place in high society, his love for a woman who aggressively exploits her elderly father Goriot in a way that would be considered elder abuse today, and his willingness to move into an apartment with Goriotâs daughter at the already impoverished old manâs expense show a willingness to financially abuse others. By presenting the struggles of proletariat characters such as Valjean, an ex-convict, Fantine, a woman forced into prostitution by poverty, and children such as the Thenardiers’ unnamed sons, who are given away to be used as a commodity and are no longer seen as children, he goes far in critiquing the societal structures of Parisian society. Jean Valjean is an upstanding citizen, a mayor, a factory owner, and a philanthropist, who follows Christian principles with no ulterior motives. Valjean, the ex-convict, hardened and embittered, would no doubt end up back in the galleys, a subject to the rigid rules and judgements of Javertâs legalistic world. We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website. New York: Simon and Schuster,1964. The Question and Answer section for Les Miserables is a great They were barbarous, yes; but barbarians in the cause of civilization. This is an inversion of the version of society and class presented by the English novelists, who treat social traditions and constructs as basically positive. Unpleasantly surprised when his uncle leaves most of his property to somebody else, Fred must either become a minister (a career for which he is unsuited) or go to work for Caleb Garth in order to repay a debt that financially cripples the Garth family. Mount Holyoke University, 1999. At stake in the battle of Waterloo was the future of the French empire built by Napoleon - his defeat at Waterloo resulted in the reinstatement of the monarchy in the form of the Bourbon kings. In it, Marx states âThe history of all previous societies has been the history of class struggle.â In 1800s, society was undergoing serious changes â the population was expanding faster than the economy, rural poverty was driving people to the cities, and from the French Revolution to the June Rebellion of 1832 Hugo depicts in his novel, France saw four different monarchs on the throne within forty years. Cooke describes the struggle as, âVictor Hugo taught his readers the new truth of the humanity of all men, even the lowest. "Les Miserables Quotes and Analysis". Just as it was within his abilities to become a hardened felon who would steal from anyone, it is also within his power to become a man of great kindness and generosity. Nature is all consuming, and Nash parallels its complexity to that of the novel, âthe novel, like nature, is a grand paradigm for metaphoricity — the more one looks, the more analogies one findsâ (Nash 480). Yet after having been shown mercy by one of his victims, Valjean has a change of heart. English Romantic Writers. Nature allows for inspiration through many devices, ranging from solace to pure love, and reflect the romantic theme of nature being the greatest teacher. Jane never succeeds in breaking out of her social class. The people want Progress; they want an end to poverty and suffering, and they are willing to resort to violent means to get it. The notary who becomes a deputy, the hack playwright who produces a mock-Corneille, the eunuch who acquires a harem, the journeyman-general who by accident wins the decisive battle of an epoch. Though many themes are woven throughout the enticing tale, the main theme is clearly love. Even his stay in the convent suggests that he has found God or spirituality in a way that he never could have as M. Madeline. Furthermore, when Cosette is with him, “she felt somewhat as if she were near God” (157). Throughout Victor Hugoâs classic French novel Les MisÃ¨rables, several themes appear, and yet none are as influential as love, whether it be religious, romantic, or parental. Parker explains that âRomanticism is the art of presenting to people the literary works which …are capable of giving them the greatest possible pleasure; classicism, on the contrary, of presenting them with that which gave the greatest possible pleasure to their grandfathersâ (Parker 307). These characters appeared in the June Rebellion of 1832. Vanity Fair. Perkins explains that âRomantic transcendentalism arose as a direct reaction against the empirical tradition…transcendentalism is the belief in the existence of a timeless realm of being beyond the shifting, sensory world of common experienceâ (Perkins 15). Hugo goes into great detail to present the reality of this poverty â how Jean Valjean is forced to become a criminal to survive, how Fantine has to become a prostitute in order to support herself and her daughter, and how the Thenardiersâ two unnamed sons are sold in order for them to have money to live. Ultimately, âLes Misâ is a story of redemption. So the little social climber does not actually succeed in accomplishing her goal. The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. There are people who observe the rules of honor as we do the stars, from a very long way off. Whereas England was consistently governed by a constitutional monarchy during the Industrial Revolution, such that there was no significant disruption to the existence of the land-based independently wealthy âgentlemenâ, Franceâs economy and society was ripped apart by a violent revolution in 1789 followed by a decade known as the Reign of Terror in which the French monarchy was destroyed and the hereditary aristocracy was deliberately eradicated. This angered many nationalists, such as Enjolras who wanted self government and an end to tyranny, and the death of Lamarque, a popular critic of the monarchy, provoked the need for revolt. Like her mother and her best friend Eliza Millward, Jane is a vicious gossip who likes to start and pass rumors. Similarly, within his novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the âgypsyâ Esmerelda refuses to submit to the power of a religious figure, Frollo, and choses death â in doing so, she subverts the power of the superstructure and creates an opportunity for social change. If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. Les MisÃ¨rables tells the tale of Jean Valjean, a convicted criminal who must escape his past and reclaim his humanity in a world gripped by poverty and oppression. By contrast, Gustave Flaubertâs eponymous heroine Madame Bovary spends her family into ruin not with the goal of being accepted among the provincial upper crust, but in order to act out her fantasies of wealth and privilege. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. She helps her old friend Amelia Sedley near the end of the book, and she does so not entirely with the hope of ensnaring Ameliaâs well-off older brother. HonorÃ© de Balzac does not shrink from depicting people as physically ugly as well as morally corrupt, particularly in the aristocracy. During the June Rebellion of 1832, Javert was horrified by the chaos in Paris and tried to notify the royalist army about the plans of the revolutionists. The day following a battle always dawns on naked corpses. Social climbing is an attempt to permanently change oneâs social class by being accepted into a more elite clique of associates. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Providence needs only a downpour of rain to make Waterloo the retort to Austerlitz. Les Miserables is a story of redemption, forgiveness, charity, salvation and moral obligation. He felt his heart movedâ (Hugo 123). Gavroche embodies liberalism because he stirred the people to shout for liberty and equality and firmly believed in the unethicality of the nobility. By saving Cosette and finding love, he becomes an angel who is willing to save others even at his own expense. Even years afterwards, following the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo, a sense of ongoing social upheaval prevailed in France. In fact, the uniform is described as “dropping from heaven” (414), which seems to directly support the image of Jean Valjean as an “angel.” When one soldier asks who this man is, the reply is, “He is a man who saves others” (414). Cast of characters to its meticulous blend of storylines change social classes from using it in an almost amoral... Philippe seemed nothing more than they can afford of liberty and equality and firmly in. Realist author but a Romantic one, like most modes of Romanticism book he succeeds in his novel Miserables... Pretty little tantrums fails to solve the Lydgatesâ financial problems, which Valjean to. Strictly Necessary cookie should be enabled at all times so that we find through nature man... 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