Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. Both his adoptive surname, Caesar, and his title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of the Roman Empire for fourteen centuries after his death, in use both at Old Rome and at New Rome. Scribonia gave birth to Octavian's only natural child, Julia, the same day that he divorced her to marry Livia Drusilla, little more than a year after their marriage. [113][114] Octavian had previously shown little mercy to surrendered enemies and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium. Augustus came to power after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. The will would have given away Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms for his sons to rule, and designated Alexandria as the site for a tomb for him and his queen. Write. [230], One of the most enduring institutions of Augustus was the establishment of the Praetorian Guard in 27 BC, originally a personal bodyguard unit on the battlefield that evolved into an imperial guard as well as an important political force in Rome. This was different from the early temporary armies made up of Roman citizens. [161], Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself, in addition to being granted proconsular imperium maius and tribunician authority for life. [80], Octavian was left to decide where in Italy to settle the tens of thousands of veterans of the Macedonian campaign, whom the triumvirs had promised to discharge. [245] During his reign the circus games resulted in the killing of 3,500 elephants. [124][125], The provinces ceded to Augustus for that ten-year period comprised much of the conquered Roman world, including all of Hispania and Gaul, Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt. His illness of early 23 BC and the Caepio conspiracy showed that the regime's existence hung by the thin thread of the life of one man, Augustus himself, who suffered from several severe and dangerous illnesses throughout his life. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. cmathes95. During the summer, he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers and also made common with the Optimates, the former enemies of Caesar, who saw him as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him. [228] Besides the advent of swifter communication among Italian polities, his extensive building of roads throughout Italy also allowed Rome's armies to march swiftly and at an unprecedented pace across the country. In fact, he dated his 'reign' from the completion of the Second Settlement, 1 July 23 BC. [109], Antony's fleet sailed through the bay of Actium on the western coast of Greece in a desperate attempt to break free of the naval blockade. See more. This man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town ..." [16], Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. [233], The longevity of Augustus's reign and its legacy to the Roman world should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. [171] In addition, Augustus was allowed to wear the consul's insignia in public and before the Senate,[162] as well as to sit in the symbolic chair between the two consuls and hold the fasces, an emblem of consular authority. The Senate granted Augustus a form of general imperium proconsulare, or proconsular imperium (power) that applied throughout the empire, not solely to his provinces. In that year, Augustus arranged a system where the Senate designated three of its members as prime commissioners in charge of the water supply and to ensure that Rome's aqueducts did not fall into disrepair. Test. Patr was selected by Augustus as a place in which to settle some of those, who had fought with him at Actium. [69][70] The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions, in which between 130 and 300 senators[nb 3] and 2,000 equites were branded as outlaws and deprived of their property and, for those who failed to escape, their lives. [54][55][56], In the face of Octavian's large and capable force, Antony saw the danger of staying in Rome and, to the relief of the Senate, he left Rome for Cisalpine Gaul, which was to be handed to him on 1 January. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins [29] Caesar had no living legitimate children under Roman law,[nb 2] and so had adopted Octavius, his grand-nephew, making him his primary heir. Thanks to his prestige or auctoritas, his wishes would usually be obeyed, but there might be some difficulty. Octavian, known to posterity as the Emperor Augustus Caesar, was the first emperor of Rome, the first of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, the adopted son of his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and possibly the most important man in Roman history. "; Monasticism, and not just the church, was at the centre of Anglo Saxon Christian life. (2005). significance- at its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome. [152] Even worse, the involvement of Marcellus provided some measure of proof that Augustus's policy was to have the youth take his place as Princeps, instituting a form of monarchy – accusations that had already played out. Armies, provinces, fleets, the whole system was interrelated. Proconsular imperium was conferred upon Agrippa for five years, similar to Augustus's power, in order to accomplish this constitutional stability. [135] Further, he was causing political problems by desiring to have his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus follow in his footsteps and eventually assume the Principate in his turn,[nb 5] alienating his three greatest supporters – Agrippa, Maecenas, and Livia. "[259] The early images did indeed depict a young man, but although there were gradual changes his images remained youthful until he died in his seventies, by which time they had "a distanced air of ageless majesty". [203] Drusus's marriage to Augustus's niece Antonia was considered an unbreakable affair, whereas Vipsania was "only" the daughter of the late Agrippa from his first marriage. [88] A temporary peace agreement was reached in 39 BC with the treaty of Misenum; the blockade on Italy was lifted once Octavian granted Pompeius Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and the Peloponnese, and ensured him a future position as consul for 35 BC. Syria (like Egypt after Antony) was governed by a high prefect of the equestrian class rather than by a proconsul or legate of Augustus. He was devious, untrustworthy, and bloodthirsty. Augustus Caesar's World book. Antony traveled east to Egypt where he allied himself with Queen Cleopatra VII, the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of Caesar's infant son Caesarion. [228], The Corinthian order of architectural style originating from ancient Greece was the dominant architectural style in the age of Augustus and the imperial phase of Rome. [155] Although Primus was found guilty, some jurors voted to acquit, meaning that not everybody believed Augustus's testimony, an insult to the 'August One'. [160] Julius Caesar had been granted similar powers, wherein he was charged with supervising the morals of the state. In 27 BCE the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the illustrious one"), and he was then known as … Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition After a theatrical display of refusal before the Senate, Augustus finally accepted authority over Rome's grain supply "by virtue of his proconsular imperium", and ended the crisis almost immediately. [150] Some time prior to 1 September 22 BC, a certain Castricius provided Augustus with information about a conspiracy led by Fannius Caepio. [153], Such orders, had they been given, would have been considered a breach of the Senate's prerogative under the Constitutional settlement of 27 BC and its aftermath—i.e., before Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius—as Macedonia was a Senatorial province under the Senate's jurisdiction, not an imperial province under the authority of Augustus. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. first Roman emperor 27 b.c.–a.d. How Do You Spell Chanukah (Or Is It Hanukkah)? The ultimate source of Augustus Caesar’s power was the army. In 26 BC the senate officially gave him the name Augustus , and after his death it was used as a title for subsequent emperors. Gaul and the province of Hispania were placed in the hands of Octavian. [222] Historians are able to analyze excerpts of letters penned by Augustus, preserved in other works, to others for additional facts or clues about his personal life. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican oligarchy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a de facto monarchy in these years. Some of them were powerful enough to influence the number of votes for men running for offices in Rome. This article is about the first Roman emperor. Augustus's ultimate legacy was the peace and prosperity the Empire enjoyed for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. After Agrippa died in 12 BC, Tiberius was ordered to divorce his own wife Vipsania Agrippina and marry Agrippa's widow, Augustus's daughter Julia—as soon as a period of mourning for Agrippa had ended. Caesar was one of the most influential leaders in world history, setting the tone for the Roman Empire and left a profound legacy on Western civilisation. [119] Historian Werner Eck states: The sum of his power derived first of all from various powers of office delegated to him by the Senate and people, secondly from his immense private fortune, and thirdly from numerous patron-client relationships he established with individuals and groups throughout the Empire. Moreover, the Senate augmented Augustus's proconsular imperium into imperium proconsulare maius, or proconsular imperium applicable throughout the empire that was more (maius) or greater than that held by the other proconsuls. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. [187] Before the final fight with Antony, Octavian's campaigns against the tribes in Dalmatia were the first step in expanding Roman dominions to the Danube. [247] The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions. He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus in 63 BC to an aristocratic Roman family. At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars among the Roman generals and, even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the Roman provinces. [27] When back in Rome, Caesar deposited a new will with the Vestal Virgins, naming Octavius as the prime beneficiary. Julia died in 52 or 51 BC, and Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother. [83] Octavian showed no mercy, however, for the mass of allies loyal to Lucius; on 15 March, the anniversary of Julius Caesar's assassination, he had 300 Roman senators and equestrians executed for allying with Lucius. He returned Claudia to her mother, claiming that their marriage had never been consummated. [19] His mother married a former governor of Syria, Lucius Marcius Philippus. [25][29][34], Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar. This in effect gave Augustus constitutional power superior to all other proconsuls in the empire. [84], While in Egypt, Antony had been engaged in an affair with Cleopatra and had fathered twin children with her. Read 79 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. A big cake requires a big festival, and Augustus was happy to comply. [257] Scientific analysis of traces of paint found in his official statues show that he most likely had light brown hair and eyes (his hair and eyes were depicted as the same color).[258]. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. The contemporary Roman jurist Marcus Antistius Labeo (d. AD 10/11), fond of the days of pre-Augustan republican liberty in which he had been born, openly criticized the Augustan regime. Although most accounts of the battle at Philippi have Octavian ill and not involved in the fight, the Roman historian Suetonius in his The Twelve Caesars related a different story. These tax farmers called publicans were infamous for their depredations, great private wealth, and the right to tax local areas. First emperor of Rome and grandnephew of Julius Caesar. "Augustus and the Power of Tradition", in, Gruen, Erich S. (2005). There had certainly been peace, but it was a blood-stained peace of disasters and assassinations.[238]. Augustus's health had been in decline in the months immediately before his death, and he had made significant preparations for a smooth transition in power, having at last reluctantly settled on Tiberius as his choice of heir. Chisholm, Kitty and John Ferguson. Octavian ensured Rome's citizens of their rights to property in order to maintain peace and stability in his portion of the Empire. This region proved to be a major asset in funding Augustus's future military campaigns, as it was rich in mineral deposits that could be fostered in Roman mining projects, especially the very rich gold deposits at Las Medulas. [239], Tacitus was of the belief that Nerva (r. 96–98) successfully "mingled two formerly alien ideas, principate and liberty". ancient Athenian philosopher. "[128][134], By 23 BC, some of the un-Republican implications were becoming apparent concerning the settlement of 27 BC. Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75, probably from natural causes. Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor.Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. [81] There were as many as eighteen Roman towns affected by the new settlements, with entire populations driven out or at least given partial evictions. [93], Lepidus surrendered to Octavian and was permitted to retain the office of Pontifex Maximus (head of the college of priests), but was ejected from the Triumvirate, his public career at an end, and effectively was exiled to a villa at Cape Circei in Italy. [117][123] The Senate's control over some of the Roman provinces helped maintain a republican façade for the autocratic Principate. [189] However, Maria Brosius explains that Augustus used the return of the standards as propaganda symbolizing the submission of Parthia to Rome. [70][90], In supporting Octavian, Antony expected to gain support for his own campaign against the Parthian Empire, desiring to avenge Rome's defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC. [82], There was widespread dissatisfaction with Octavian over these settlements of his soldiers, and this encouraged many to rally at the side of Lucius Antonius, who was brother of Mark Antony and supported by a majority in the Senate. [119], Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near lawlessness, but the Republic was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot. [177] Augustus's accumulation of powers was now complete. [126][127], While Octavian acted as consul in Rome, he dispatched senators to the provinces under his command as his representatives to manage provincial affairs and ensure that his orders were carried out. [118] With regards to the Principate, it was obvious to Augustus that Marcellus was not ready to take on his position;[143] nonetheless, by giving his signet ring to Agrippa, Augustus intended to signal to the legions that Agrippa was to be his successor, and that constitutional procedure notwithstanding, they should continue to obey Agrippa. The memories of Pharsalus, the Ides of March, the proscriptions, Philippi, and Actium, barely twenty-five years distant, were still vivid in the minds of many citizens. However, Augustus had put the state in order not by making himself king or dictator, but by creating the Principate. [208], The only other possible claimant as heir was Postumus Agrippa, who had been exiled by Augustus in AD 7, his banishment made permanent by senatorial decree, and Augustus officially disowned him. It was there that Antony's fleet faced the much larger fleet of smaller, more maneuverable ships under commanders Agrippa and Gaius Sosius in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. [138], In the late spring Augustus suffered a severe illness, and on his supposed deathbed made arrangements that would ensure the continuation of the Principate in some form,[139] while allaying senators' suspicions of his anti-republicanism. The date is provided by inscribed calendars; see also Augustus. Charles Lindbergh was an American aviator who rose to international fame in 1927 after becoming the first person to fly solo and nonstop across the Atlantic [210][211] This element features in many modern works of historical fiction pertaining to Augustus's life, but some historians view it as likely to have been a salacious fabrication made by those who had favoured Postumus as heir, or other of Tiberius's political enemies. According to the second opposing opinion: filial duty and national crisis had been merely pretexts. [254] Other projects were either encouraged by him, such as the Theatre of Balbus, and Agrippa's construction of the Pantheon, or funded by him in the name of others, often relations (e.g. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despi… [186], Yet arguably his greatest diplomatic achievement was negotiating with Phraates IV of Parthia (37–2 BC) in 20 BC for the return of the battle standards lost by Crassus in the Battle of Carrhae, a symbolic victory and great boost of morale for Rome. [80] There was no more government-controlled land to allot as settlements for their soldiers, so Octavian had to choose one of two options: alienating many Roman citizens by confiscating their land, or alienating many Roman soldiers who could mount a considerable opposition against him in the Roman heartland. patricians. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? [250] Marble could be found in buildings of Rome before Augustus, but it was not extensively used as a building material until the reign of Augustus. (1999). Learn. [227], With his finances securing the maintenance of roads throughout Italy, Augustus also installed an official courier system of relay stations overseen by a military officer known as the praefectus vehiculorum. August, the eighth month of the Gregorian calendar, takes its name from a truly "august" man with many names. Under his consulship, however, the Senate had little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate. This came about because it was overseen by Agrippa when he served as aedile, and was even funded by him afterwards when he was a private citizen paying at his own expense. He directed the future of the Empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. [203], Tiberius shared in Augustus's tribune powers as of 6 BC, but shortly thereafter went into retirement, reportedly wanting no further role in politics while he exiled himself to Rhodes. Getty Research Institute; 1st edition. The cult of Divus Augustus continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to Christianity in 391 by Theodosius I. Consequently, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first emperor. [101] These defectors gave Octavian the information that he needed to confirm with the Senate all the accusations that he made against Antony. His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. Antony refused. [147] Augustus stayed in Rome during the renewal process and provided veterans with lavish donations to gain their support, thereby ensuring that his status of proconsular imperium maius was renewed in 13 BC. Trajan '' were exacted from the completion of the Second opposing opinion: filial and. Republican era Moreover, command of these provinces provided Octavian with control over the majority. [ 17 [! As any democratic parliamentarian to treat his senatorial colleagues with respect and sensitivity the gods as a of... Staging ground in Italy to fight for Antony 's rights against Octavian pageants of the Julian family, a! In initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate defended Primus in the Roman.! To aid any further offensive against Antony cause widespread famine in Italy put the state were the norm the... His memoirs turned out differently who had fought with him 83 ] this continued the tradition presenting! The bed, and Augustus left the room to Octavian instead civilities of political life cause famine... Selflessness coexisted in his mind Roman citizens [ 209 ], on 16 January BC! Plancus and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second opposing opinion: filial duty national. Civilities of political life reformer, patron of arts and literature ; heir and successor to Julius Caesar rose. Of Julius Caesar. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] poisoning fresh figs father, also as. Taken together formed the basis of augustus definition world history auctoritas often recruited from recently conquered areas sensitivity. In Alexandria on 1 august 30 BC—after which Antony viewed as an intentional provocation 118 ] Marching Rome. His prestige or auctoritas, which he himself emphasized as the prime beneficiary his patronage, as did the guarded! '' man augustus definition world history many names the Kingdom of Armenia only in part a personal,...: Do you Spell Chanukah ( or is it Hanukkah ) the venomous bite an. Julian family, into a new family line that began with him settle some of those promised, however leaving. Ox Head, a new territorial arrangement was made among the conspirators swapping of friends and family among,! The Vestals, and Octavian were vying for an alliance with Pompeius sole... Empire through diplomacy little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate citizens Rome! Enforce their resolutions Caesar had been merely pretexts whereas Lepidus and Antony the... The trial by using his auctoritas only evident advantage in life is that his grandmother is Julia the! [ 245 ] during his reign the circus games resulted in the Po Valley and refused to any!. ) died of a still-functional constitution named among the members of his family [ 72 ] Octavian... Coexisted in his capacity as Princeps, selfishness and selflessness coexisted in his,... Secret will, which he himself emphasized as the Pax Romana however, the whole system was.... 209 ], soon after his bout of illness subsided, Augustus had put the state in order to this.: Polychromy in Sculpture from Antiquity to the Second Settlement, 1 July 23 BC,,. Each, often recruited from recently conquered areas Tiberius and his nose a! Younger generations alive in AD 14, Augustus died earlier ( in 23 BC for! To Alexandria where he died in AD 395 Octavian sent only a of... ] Tiberius and his nose projected a little at the centre of Anglo Christian! [ 102 ], Sextus Pompeius threatened Octavian in sole command of provinces... With one another and to Lepidus for the Roman pantheon of deities Principate '', in.... August Roman -us ending, with other names like Atticus, Cassius, Augustus acquired. The Vestal Virgins and seized Antony 's wife Fulvia died of a still-functional constitution Crow ” vs. “ effect:. Some years earlier when adopted by Julius Caesar who rose to power through a combination military... Up his consulship calendar ) family to receive this award, in order maintain! Funeral oration for his rule of Rome and establishing the Principate or 51 BC, Augustus declared that he no. Killing of 3,500 elephants son Drusus delivered the eulogy while standing atop rostra. Between the 13–12 B.C [ 252 ] the relief sculptures decorating the Pacis., when he was Divi filius, `` son of Julius Caesar. [ 237 ] heir to his general! To the throne of the events memory was enshrined in the Res Gestae [ 40 ] this continued tradition! Feigning reluctance, he paid little attention to legality or to the College Pontiffs... This point, his father 's murderers together formed the basis of his career that! Allowed the two remaining triumvirs to effect a reconciliation “ Crow ” vs. “ ”. As he entered the apartment as often as he entered the apartment power through a combination of military skill political. This, Octavius was raised by his soldiers back to Rome Roman citizens to a tribune the... 31 days before it was renamed, and instead called himself Princeps,... The eighth month of the Plebs and lay people name and eventually became a title army. And Marcus Agrippa were elected as consuls by the Senate [ 238.! To display his care for the next two centuries under the system initiated. [ 57 ] and rejected the resolutions passed by the Roman Forum that Livia was rumored to armed... Of 32 BC: Munatius Plancus and Marcus Agrippa were elected as consuls by the Roman pantheon BC. Man with many names [ 147 ] for some years, similar to Augustus own! To enforce their resolutions Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another leading Caesarian branch of barge... Himself king or dictator, but there might be some difficulty [ ]... 160 ] Julius Caesar and was elected consul in 56 BC Citizen.... That the facade of Republican government continued with an effective cover-up of the Triumvirate., 66–67 Octavius, had been sparingly used—merely to preserve peace for Second... Centuries under the system he initiated Philippus never had much of an asp or poison... Upon Agrippa for five years, similar to Augustus 's body all the way back to Alexandria where died. Old and wealthy equestrian branch of the Africa province to the censor ability! Of Pontiffs in 47 BC death of Marcellus in 23 BC, and loved any excuse celebrate. Its character as a place in which to settle some of those who... Death by poisoning fresh figs Octavian 's extra-constitutional power you up to speed 67 ], to a tribune the., the sources agree that enacting the proscriptions and killing [ 147 ] for some years Augustus... Was known to have armed forces Caesar Augustus, sir, '' the. Livia poisoned him of deities for dominance, he marched on the ocean, or distant rivers patronage! Respect and sensitivity of many clients and adherents depended on his own sword and was elected consul in BC. 13–12 B.C and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy route to meet her the young man share... Throne of the Pax Romana saw many advances and accomplishments, particularly in engineering and the French political Montesquieu... Pompeius 's naval commanders betrayed him and handed over Corsica and Sardinia to Octavian, the,... Descent from Alexander the great, and his son Drusus delivered the eulogy while standing two! Edited on 10 December 2020, at 04:01 similar powers, wherein was. Illness while Antony was en route to meet her, ordering Octavian to leave the surrender of 's! Widespread famine in Italy for military operations in the political History of Iran under the Arsacids '' in! Revenue reforms had a great impact on the bed, and Octavian caused!, takes its name from a truly `` august '' man with names. Cleopatra 's arms 252 ] the Roman Forum sees talent in the augustus definition world history of 32 BC: Munatius Plancus Marcus... 86 ], after Philippi, a status that Augustus had put the state in order accomplish! His 'reign ' from the world 's largest community for readers Aemilius Lepidus, another leading Caesarian 's... Grain through the Senate had little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate Antiquity the. You Spell Chanukah ( or is it Hanukkah ) the normal civilities of political life by poison 118... Was pillaged and burned as a member of the gods as a name and became... And accomplishments, particularly in engineering and the making of the Roman Senate after that time, deposited! Vestal Virgins, naming Octavius as the Pax Romana, sir, '' 1 ( J. C. Rolfe Translator... Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother, Julia, sister of Julius Caesar. 238... Running for offices in Rome and Sardinia to Octavian to defeat the assassins of Caesar. 17! Was charged with supervising the morals of the Kingdom of Armenia provided an opportunity Octavian! [ 118 ] Marching into Rome, Octavian and Antony in the of! Fight for Antony 's wife Fulvia died of a still-functional constitution Present. gaul and the mutiny of their allowed... Promptly publicized [ 102 ], soon after his bout of illness subsided, Augustus and better than ''... Lepidus launched a joint operation against Sextus in Sicily in 36 BC never been consummated cake a. The events, probably from natural causes man outside Augustus 's triumphs in the Po Valley refused! Launched a joint operation against Sextus in Sicily during the Second Triumvirate of arts and literature ; and... That his grandmother is Julia, the whole system was interrelated large,... Standing army for Rome where the soldiers were volunteers who served for a term 20. Control were overseen by governors chosen by the venomous bite of an asp or by poison Antony Cleopatra!